Acustica Abitativa

Quali sono i requisiti acustici passivi degli edifici?

Il d.P.C.M. 05/12/1997 definisce come requisiti passivi degli edifici: l’indice del potere fonoisolante relativo alle partizioni fra ambienti di differenti unità immobiliari, l’indice dell’isolamento acustico standardizzato della facciata dell’edificio, l’indice del livello di rumore da calpestio dei solai, la rumorosità prodotta dagli impianti tecnologici. Gli ambienti sono suddivisi in classi e per ciascuna classe il decreto citato stabilisce dei valori obiettivo per ciascun parametro. Altri parametri, non inseriti nella citata norma, possono risultare significativi per valutare la qualità acustica di un edificio.

Quali sono i dati e le informazioni utili per effettuare una previsione acustica?

Se l’ambiente oggetto di studio è di nuova realizzazione occorre far riferimento ai progetti strutturali ed architettonici, nonché ai capitolati che definiscono materiali, impianti, tipologie e criteri costruttivi; sulla base di queste informazioni è possibile avviare lo studio acustico e stabilire se gli assunti progettuali sono tali da conseguire le prestazioni idonee alla funzionalità desiderata per l’ambiente.
Se l’ambiente già esiste ed è prevista una più o meno radicale ristrutturazione, accanto ai dati di progetto è opportuno acquisire informazioni strumentali caratterizzando ad esempio il campo acustico (mediante tempo di riverberazione e distribuzione del livello di pressione sonora) e l’entità degli isolamenti forniti dalle strutture esistenti.

Gli impianti di servizio degli ambienti a che requisiti devono rispondere?

I requisiti sono abbastanza articolati e dipendono anche dalla destinazione d’uso specifica dell’ambiente; a grandi linee si può ritenere che:

  • gli impianti collocati all’esterno, o dotati di comunicazione con l’esterno (ad esempio condizionatori, unità di trattamento aria, ecc) sono potenziali sorgenti di rumore verso recettori non direttamente coinvolti dallo spettacolo, manifestazione, attività, ecc; per tale motivo dunque sono soggetti ai limiti associati alla zonizzazione acustica ed al criterio differenziale.
  • gli impianti tecnologici (ad esempio: condizionatori, scarichi idraulici, ascensori, impianti termici, ecc) devono rispettare quanto indicato dal D.P.C.M. 05/12/1997 “Determinazione dei requisiti acustici passivi degli edifici” che stabilisce i livelli sonori da conseguire all’interno di vari ambienti o locali.
  • gli impianti tecnologici (tipicamente le bocche ed i canali dedicati al condizionamento) dovrebbero inoltre rispettare, nelle sale propriamente dedicate alla manifestazione, i livelli sonori indicati dalle curve NC (25, 30, 35). Questo requisito assicura un rumore di fondo molto basso nell’ambiente in cui è importante non avere disturbi nella percezione di un messaggio vocale o musicale.

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